Slide 1: Which of the following conditions may be associated with a higher risk of patent foramen ovale? A) Migraine with aura. B) Epilepsy. C) Tourette’s syndrome. D) Parkinson’s disease.

Slide 2: A) Migraine with aura. Conflicting data exist regarding the association between PFO and migraine with aura. While the largest cross-sectional study to date found no association, a 2008 meta-analysis supported the linkage.

Slide 3: In addition to PFO, there are apparent associations between migraine and other conditions that results in right to left shunting, such as Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT). In HHT, patients form intrapulmonary shunts due to AVMs in their lungs. Theoretically, in both conditions, vasoactive substances that are normally deactivated in lung capillaries may enter the cerebral circulation and contribute to the development of migraines.


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